Welcome to the Whakapapa Club Forums where you will find a wealth of information.  You are free to browse the forums, but if you wish to comment or add requests, you must register, which is quick and easy and you can even use your Facebook Login.

Once you have signed up and posted either a reply or a new post it will not appear in the forums until it has been approved – this is to stop spam from appearing and keeping our Whakapapa Club Forums relavent for Whakapapa only.

If someone helps you don’t forget to acknowlege them.

Te Raki Wiremu  

wahinekaitahu OWC
New Member

Kia ora, I am doing some research on my decendants and whanau who come from the Kai Tahu iwi.
I was informed by a relative that Kati/Ngati Huirapa was a hapu of Kai tahu. I would like to know a bit more about this tribe - Ngati Huirapa, where they come from? Were they before or after Waitaha and Kati Mamoe?
I have also been given a name which maybe linked to us - Wiremu Te Raki? I think he came from Ngati Huirapa. Another name is Tiki Karaweko, maybe also from the same hapu. Can anyone help me out here please. Thanks

Posted : 06 February, 2006 11:05 pm
Upokoruru OWC
Active Member

Kia ora Wahinekaitahu,

Kati Huirapa is named after our tupuna Huirapa who was one of 11 children of Tuhaitara and Marukore. Tuhaitara was from Kati Iraturoto, Gai Tahu-potiki and Kati Mamoe. Marukore belong to the ancient lines of Te Kahea, a Waitaha related people who lived in the N.Island, or what is actually referred to in the past as Aotearoa (not the whole country).
Kati Huirapa spread from the Gai Tuhaitara/Tu-Ahuriri migration from around Kaiapoi (Te Kohanga a Kaikaiwaro) into S.Canterbury and N.Otago where many are located at Waikouaiti (-Karitane). The rohe been between the Rakaia and Waitaki rivers.It is likely that the Kati Huirapa established themselves past the Rakaia about three generations after Tutekawa was killed.Te Ariki's daughters, Te Ruawahine and Kohana both married Takaoteraki, the greatgrandson of Tutekawa. Takaoteraki had various links to Gati Mamoe and Waitaha, and some through Ngati Porou, Te Kahea (Waitaha/Gati Mamoe) and Ngati Kahungunu.
Wiremu Te Raki was the brother of Taare and Mereana Putakaraki. The last been my gr.gr.grandmother. Their parents were Merehana Hinehou and Pii Te Raki. Merahana later married Hona Pauahi, but without any issue.After this, she was most commonly known as Merehana Pauahi. Mereana Putakaraki married Puao Rakiraki, the son of the Waitaha/Gati Mamoe chief, Haimona Lakilaki (-Rakitapu) of Maranuku-Kaka Point.I come down this line.
Although I have the whakapapa for Merehana Hinehou, i still can't trace that of Pii Te Raki, although there are a number of Te Raki cited in the 1848 Kaumatua List within Waikouaiti.
It is incorrect to refer to Gati Huirapa soley as a "Ngai Tahu" hapu.
Many kaumatua told James Herries-Beattie, that Gati Huirapa were a mix of Gai Tahu and Gati Mamoe with some connections to Waitaha.
All the aforementioned iwi though can, by whakapapa, be traced back to Rakaihautu, the founder of the Waitaha race.

e noho ra.


Edited by - Upokoruru on Feb 26 2007 11:18:40 AM

Posted : 25 February, 2007 11:17 pm
aparima_native OWC
New Member


Kia ora, I am doing some research on my decendants and whanau who come from the Kai Tahu iwi.
I was informed by a relative that Kati/Ngati Huirapa was a hapu of Kai tahu. I would like to know a bit more about this tribe - Ngati Huirapa, where they come from? Were they before or after Waitaha and Kati Mamoe?
I have also been given a name which maybe linked to us - Wiremu Te Raki? I think he came from Ngati Huirapa. Another name is Tiki Karaweko, maybe also from the same hapu. Can anyone help me out here please. Thanks

Posted : 18 November, 2007 5:26 pm
Upokoruru OWC
Active Member

you may be referring to another Wiremu Te Raki; the ariki who signed the Kemp Deed in 1848.
The Wiremu Te Raki I am related to was born later about 1863.

Posted : 19 November, 2007 6:30 pm
pepe OWC
Active Member

kia ora Wahinekaitahu,
Karaweko is listed in Mantell's 1852 census as a female child of Rakiwakena and Moimoi[f]. She is aged 20, may be the wife of Timoti Karetai and her hapu is listed as Katikoko.
Kati Huirapa is a hapu not a tribe and Huirapa was a Waitaha/Katimamoe ancestor.Later intermarriages of Kaitahu into these much earlier lines meant that some of them began to adopt this hapu name.
I hope this helps.
ka kite apopo

Posted : 21 November, 2007 1:11 am
Upokoruru OWC
Active Member

While we are on the subject of Huirapa,
Huirapa was the third oldest child of Marukore and Tuhaitara.There were eleven children over-all:
Tamaraeroa was the oldest,he is the grandfather of Tuahuriri, although the latter's father is sometimes disputed.Tuahuriri's supposed father is Te Aohikuraki, the son of Tamaraeroa, although there is some indications that Tumaro, a Ngai Tara chief who went to the Whakamarama pa at Waimea (-Nelson) to live and where Tuahuriri sought out his father eventually killing him.Tumaro was the former husband of Tuahuriri's mother Rakaitekura (no Ngai Tahu me Ngati Porou)
"....ko Te Aohikuraki no te ai hataretaretatanga kia Rakaitekura koia te mokai Te Hikutawatawa o Te Raki..."Te Hikutawatawaoteraki was the first name given to Tuahuriri.
the second child was Hinehou followed by Huirapa then Hinekuhaa, Whakakino, Pahirua, Whakapune, Hineputaihinu, Whakaata,Taahau and Tahumata.
Tuhaitara was married to Marukore.Tuhaitara was descended from Kati Mamoe, Kai Tahu and Kati Iraturoto.Marukore on the other hand was a Te Kahea, an ancient Waitaha people who lived in the North Island who whom the Kati Mamoe evolved from and were Rapuwai also originated from along with a woman name Puhirere.Rapuwai branched off from Te Kahea and this is where Pourakahua came from who is an ancestor of Hotu-mamoe.
Tuhaitara insulted her husband Marukore by referring to him as a indolent,. lazy good for nothing husband who couldn't bring the bacon home so to say.However, she was using words that were also the name of Marukore's Te Kahea ancestors.these names and others are the same for the name of ancient Rapuwai battles which they lost long ago in 'Hawaiki'-often battles are remembered by using the names of the gloriously defeated.These are also the names of ancient Rapuwai hapu that are no longer used.The Kati Iraturoto were from Tura and it was his grand-daughter Ueroa who married the son of Porangahau , a Kurahaupo descendant,.He was called Te Whe and his mother Te Rongopakihi was from the Tini-o-Awanuiarangi, which is another name for Te Kahea, Awanuiaraki,the first people of that name before the Mataatua waka came.Rawiri Te Maire still identified with Awanuiaraki(Te Kahea) and Tura (Kati Iraturoto), which are considered to be affiliated with the Waitaha.
Anyway Marukore was decidedly insulted and went to his people who were also concerned that Tuhaitara's people, Kai Tahu, were trying to take-over the children, so the Te Kahea attacked them and the two oldest boys, Tamaraeroa and Huirapa,were killed it is believed in their sleep-lying down-tapapa-taka!This was a massacre more than a battle and it lead to two major conflicts called Pakiaka and Waikoau on names for the same fight.These wars are also known in some form by Ngati Kahungunu who were also involved.These conflicts occurred in the Waikoau-Aropaoanui area.Ngati Kahungunu-ki-te-Wairoa will probably now what I am talking about.
It was the other brothers, Pahirua, who married a Kati Hawea-Waitaha woman and whose descendants came to Te Wahi Pounamu, and his teina Tahumata who then lead the war against their father's tribe Te Kahea. Tahumata at Waikoau attacked the pa of Rakaimoari, who Tahumata was a former tauira of in Rakaimoari's wharepurakau,although Rakaimoari taunted him, Tahumata eventually won a duel against him and took his wife as his own.Tahumata's other wife is Mania which Kai Tahu sources show her descent from Ruapani and Kahungunu's child Rongomaipapa.
This is how the Kati Huirapa became part of Kai Tahu whilst still in the N.Island.

Edited by - Upokoruru on Dec 08 2007 8:15:31 PM

Posted : 21 November, 2007 6:26 pm
Upokoruru OWC
Active Member

But just before the Kati Kuri and Kai Tuhaitara (both Kai Tahu related hapu)came to Te Wahipounamu, the Aitaka-a-Riti came to Wairau and beyond.This was after Ngai Tara arrived.Rangitane-Ngai Tara and Kati Mamoe would of been in the Wairau-Marlborough region when the Aitanga-a-Riti arrived.There is a Rangitane whakapapa from the Marlborough district which shows Tutekawa's marrige to a woman of that iwi, but I am not too confident of it because it has four or so too many generations compared to more other well known traditions. So who are the Aitaka-a-Riti?
Riti was the wife of Rokoitua who met the Tini-o-Toi, the "wood-eaters" of Toi-kairakau.It was Rokoitua who eventually brought the kumara back from Hawaiki to the Tini-o-Toi, Kahui Tipua.The Aitaka-a-Riti appaers to be the name chosen by the descendants of Tahumata as said in the Beattie books.Rokoitua and Riti are the tipuna of Hotu-mamoe and we find their names in the same Kati Mamoe whakapapa of Tuhaitara, the mother of Tahumata.Indeed, Rokoitua is a descendant of Toi so we must remember that the Uruao waka came from PatunuiaAio and brought nga purapura a Tataiwhenua who are the Waitaha, Kahui Tipua and Kahui Roko.But the Kahui Roko were left at the last 'Hawaiki' whilst the others settled parts of the N.Island and S.Island.The Kahui Roko came later.
Tahumata's grand-daughters were Tukorero, Hinetawai and Hineteraraku.Hinetawai was one of the wives of Tuahuriri and it was their children Turakautahi and his teina Moki who were the last of these people to came to Te Wahipounamu.
Tukorero became the wife of Tutekawa.She was also had strong Kati Mamoe ancestry as well like Hinetawai.We find that the Aitaka-a-Riti and Aitaka-Tapuiti joined forces to defeat the Patea alliance of Rapuwai/Kati mamoe near the West-Coast-Tiori-patea.Tapuiti is the wife of Rakihouia, son of Rakaihautu, so this is a very ancient Waitaha related hapu.Research strongly suggests that these two people were from Tutekawa and Tukorero's son Te Rakitamau and his wife Punahikoia,a Waitaha chieftianess.Te Rakitamau took his sons, Te Weka and Marama and built a pa far inland at 'Omarama'(you will not find the name Te Aomarama on any old manuscript-just the name Omarama).It is probably from the same campaign that Te Weka defeated the Wanaka people who might of been part of the Patea alliance since Potikitautahi's whakapapa shows his connections to Rapuwai,Waitaha and Katimamoe. At the same time the Kati Mamoe at lake Ohau appeared to be 'cut-off' .Te Weka got his wife Hinetarahaka (no Kati Mamoe me Waitaha) from these people, but she may have been won at Wanaka during the time.
Nearly a generation later the Kai Tahi who had not long ago consolidated their conquests at Te Kohanga Kaikai-a-waru (Kaiapoi) decided it was best to part company with each-other because of 'in-fighting' so Te Ariki took his Kati Huirapa people down to Arowhenua:"ko Te Ariki i wehea mai ki Arowhenua nei me tona nuinga me Kati Huirapa ratou."
It was Te Ariki's daughters, Kohana and Te Ruawhare who both married Takaoteraki, gr.grandson of Tutekawa from both of his wives Tukorero and Rakanuku, and nephew of Te Weka and Marama.
So we can now see that the descendants of Huirapa and Tahumata met each-other again and inter-married.

Pepe, it was the Kati Huirapa who spread out and claimed the land they moved into and became one of the largest tribes in Te Wahi Pounamu with the Kai Tuahuriri.They held and maintained the peace between the Kai Tahu and Kati Mamoe and carried their ancient Waitaha links.

Edited by - Upokoruru on Nov 21 2007 8:55:29 PM

Posted : 21 November, 2007 7:50 pm
pepe OWC
Active Member

kia ora koutou,
it is always good to remember when studying whakapapa that there are often a number of people with the same name which can cause confusion.The tipuna Huirapa I refer to is a much earlier one and is of Waitaha.
Some whakapapa have been meddled with and altered to alter history to suit themselves.
The only Ngaitahu in the north island are the branch of Kahungunu and they have never left.
The people who came in search of obtaining land and control of the pounamu had lost their battles in the north and came down gradually until they had built up their numbers in order to achieve the above. However they did not call themselves Ngaitahu or Kaitahu[after now adopting the Katimamoe/ Waitaha dialect] until very much later in the piece around the time of pakeha contact. Before this they were known by their hapu names and were known for frequent and deadly infighting. They 'got their act together ' after Te Rauparaha's invasion and began to unite against a common enemy.
It is wise to remember that history and whakapapa is written by the victor although some might challenge that concept since the truce was drawn with the boundary at Poupoutunoa.

Posted : 26 November, 2007 11:42 pm
Upokoruru OWC
Active Member

the Huirapa I refer to is the eponymous tipuna of Kaati Huirapa which I have stated above.I do not know of any other tipuna that has that name.
His whakapapa is known threw out the Beattie publications given by traditional Maori authorities, Hocken-Hakena Library has many manuscript records of S.Island whakapapa and the history outlined in Te Maire Tau's 'Nga Pikituroa-o-Ngai Tahu' etc.,& so on....

Te Uhi-tataraikoa
Te Manu-waero-rua
Te Rakau-manini
Te Rakau-manana
Te Rakau-hape
Te Rakau-whaka-matuku
Roko-i-tua (-ka moe ia Riti)
Raki-roa (I)
Raki-roa (II)
Whatu-teki (~Nuku-teki)
Te Watere = Kirirua
Whatu-mamoe = Te Au-kukume
Auai-taheke =Whaturea
Houmea=Te Utuporaki Hikaororoa=Urupa Tumaikuku=Uemata Rokokote=Tahupitopito Manawatakita=Rakaiwhakaata
tana ko:

*The names from Houmea (Houmeataumata),Hikaororoa,Tumaikuku,Rokokote and Manawatakita are separate generations showing whakamoe connections.
Huirapa and his many brothers and sisters shown above lived about fifteen generations ago. Tutekawa lived about a generation or so after Huirapa and he married Tahumata's grand-daughter Tukorero.Tuahuriri was a younger contemporary of Tutekawa and he was also the gr.grandson of Tamaraeroa.Tuahuriri married Tahumata's other grand-daughter Hinetawai who was a sister of Tukorero making Turakautahi, Moki to be first cousins of Te Rakitamau, the son of Tutekawa.
(Tahupitopito is from Kati Iraturoto. Rakaiwhakaata is from Kai Tahu.Marukore is a Te Kahea an ancient Waitaha-Kati Mamoe people who still lived in the N.Island at the time.)

Edited by - Upokoruru on Nov 27 2007 10:57:01 PM

Posted : 27 November, 2007 10:28 pm
Upokoruru OWC
Active Member

James Herries-Beattie collected some "interesting" traditions about the identity of Tuahuriri (-Te Hikutawatawaoteraki):

11.( H.B , MS-582/F/19.DHL)Dunedin.Hocken.Library.

‘An interesting statement’

Tuhaitara = Marukore
Tamaraeroa = Terahuanui
Te aohikuraki = Pirauti a
1.Hineteao 2.Rakaiwerohia
Teaohikuraki = Rakaitekura
i moe a tahaetia a Rakaitekura e Te aohikuraki
na Tumaroo ke ia te wahine.
Pahirua = Hinekura
1.Kahukiao 2.Rakihikaia 3.hineteuru me etahi atu
Kahukiao = Tuahuriri
Tanetiki = Huanoa

“Note: Tuahuriri’s mother was stolen and he married his cousin’s girl.
Another interesting thing is that the son of Tahumata and Mania, Terakinukai, married Hineteao a Tuahuriri
and Hineteao a Kuri = two wives of same name but different families.”

An interesting statement indeed.Now, it is rather common knowledge amongst Kaiapoi Maori about the question of the "real" father of Tuahuriri as other traditions claim it was Tumaro and not Tamaraeroa.However, I found the following submitted for the 'Camterbury Regional Landfill Project'which contains a petition sent by Hone Tikao in 1850 to the Governor regarding the Wairau Purchase from Ngati Toa in 1847:
".....Friend, Wairau belongs to me , the Natives living there are merely squatters. I now, for the firt time ,give my full consent to give up to you the land of Wairau, Te Are Are ,Torea Moua,Totaranui.Friend the Governor, hearken to the right ownership of this land; Tuahuriri is the man of the land, all other people are living there without authority, all those men have only lately come to reside there. Ngati Kuia, is the tribe who lived on that land in former times. Tuahuriri was the man who had authority over all these lands, because he was the great chief of Ngati Wairangi. Kahukuratupaku first owned that land, and from him descended Tumaroro, and from him came Tuahuriri, thus he was chief of those lands.

Such claims such as Tikao's 'manawhenua' statement above really reflects a 'Kaiapoi-centric' point of view which can also be found in Matiaha Tiramorehu's statements recorded by Walter Mantell in 1848:
"....hei iwi hoki a KaiTuhaitara ,ko Tuahuriri te rangatira, ko Te Kahea te iwi ko Tuahuriri te ano Te Rangitane ,ko Kati Whata te iwi ko Tuahuriri te rangatira ,whakaputa ia inaia nei ...."
(Mantell.'Letters & Memoranda':1845-1856.micro 348.DHL.)
Tiramorehu's concern here is to establish Tuahiriri's historical claims from Wairau to Kaiapoi and down to Moeraki where Tiramorehu was interviewed at the time.Although he follows on from Kai Tuhaitara and its Ngai Tahu connections, Tiramorehu does not concern himself with the paternal links of Te Kahea and Tuahuriri although this maybe infered from the overall cognate kinship from Tuhaitara which then indicates Te Aohikuraki as the father of Tuahuriri.Instead of recognising Ngati Kuia as the original takata-whenua of Wairau like Tikao does, Tiramorehu simply ties Rangitane to the Wairau instead but of Tuahuriri's manawhenua.Now that is rather debatable, but Ngai Tahu were keen to establish, at least, their former manawhenua to the raupatu lands of the Te Tau Ihu regions of the northern reaches of the South Island which had been taken over by Ngati Toarangatira, Ngati Rarua and Ngati Koata over a generation ago. I suspect from this that the Ngai Tahu may have viewed the remnant Rangitane-Ngati Kuia formerly under Tutepourangi in the Wairau region as a people without further political consequence since Ngati Rarua et-al could also now claim takata-whenua status through intermarriage.
It is evident from both Tikao and Tiramorehu's statements that Tuahuriru's paternity was a matter of manawhenua emphasis.
For example, Ngati Wairangi were not a Wairau iwi.These people appeared to originate in south Taranaki and migrated to the Tasman area circa.1600 A.D and settled further south down the Poutini West-coast area.The progenitor of Kati Wairaki is Tura.Soon after them came the Ngai Tara and Ngai Tumatakokiri to the Tasman region. It is interesting that Tikao claims Tumaroro" as the father of Tuahuriri, where as the name "Tumaro" is usually put forward. Tumaro was said to be a Ngai Tara figure.From this Tikao probably referred to the combined alliance of Ngati Wairangi, Ngai Tara and other people of the Tai-o-Pounamu thus giving Tuahuriri an extensive manawhenua.
However, "Tumaroro" is a name found in a Ngati Kahungunu whakapapa, the off-spring of Rongomaipapa and the off-spring of this Tumaroro is "Tamaraeroa" , the same name as Te Aohikuraki's father according to Kai Tuhaitara traditions!All these generations are the same for Ngai Tahu traditions given for Tuahuriri.
Amongst all these traditions and details are other significant factors which bring into question the migration of Tutekawa, the Aitanga-a-Riti and Te Huataki and how all these people relate to Wairau. Anybody familiar with these traditions and 'Te Tau Ihu o te Waka'Hilary & John Mitchell and the Sweet (Tuiti Makatanara) & Frank McDonald whakapapa texts included, will see part of the historical picture I have so-far persented here. That 'picture' when approached from a different angle reveals an interesting complexion of tribal claims to the Wairau area of Marlborough.

Edited by - Upokoruru on Dec 09 2007 10:13:42 PM

Posted : 09 December, 2007 8:05 pm
Upokoruru OWC
Active Member


The identity and origins of Tuahuriri are aptly covered by Rawiri Te Maire Tau in ‘Nga Pikituroa o Ngai Tahu-the Oral traditions of Ngai Tahu’ in the second appendix starting from p.275.
There are two names to consider: Te Hikutawatawaoteraki and Tuahuriri believed to be the same ancestral figure.
There are two potential paternal figures also cited within the tradition: Tumaro or Tumaroro and Te Aohikuraki.
The “purakau” text authorized by the Kati Wairaki descendant Te Keepa also cited in ‘Nga Pikituroa o Ngai Tahu’ which informs us that Te Aohikuraki is the son of Tamaraeroa the oldest son of Tuhaitara and Marukore. This Te Aohikuraki couples with Pirauti and produces Hineteao, and Rakaiwerohia. Next, Te Aohikuraki has a liason with the Kai Tahu figure Rakaitekura the wife of a man called Tumaro or Tumaroro who is a Ngai Tara figure and through this “ai hataretaretanga” a child later referred to as Tuahuriri is born. It is equally interesting that the Nagi Tara figure Tuteremoana has a tipuna named "Tumaroro":
223:metiki ia Tamaraeroa = ia
224:Te Rahuanui kotana
225:Ko Te Aohikuraki = ia kotana
226:Ko Hineteao pirauti
227:Ko Rakaiwerohia ka mutu tena
228: ka=ano Te Aohikuraki ia
229:Rakaitekura Atemahipi
230:ro, wahine atumaro
231:Ka moe ia Te Aohiku
232:raki ko Tuahuriri Ko tei
233:ngoa Tawhito tenei ko
234:Ko Tehikutawatawa

Tumaro resided at the birth of Te Hikutawatawaoterakui (Tuahuriri), but the infant would not come out.So within the time honoured custom of reciting whakapapa down to the father it was believed that the infant would be finally born.Although Tumaro came down to his name, the baby still wouldn't be delievered ,only when was the name of Te Aohikuraki was mentioned did the infant appear.Thus, Tumaro knew that Te Aohikuraki was the actual father. We find the same theme described in the so-called greatest "love story of Maoridom" of Tutanekai and Hinemoa, although these stories of unrequainted love involving a maiden swimming a great distance is a common motif found in other traditions.Recall the difficult birth of Tutanekai and the "illicit" affair of his mother.
A: The whakapapa for Te Rahuanui is included with the same kinship group of Maririhau. Maririhau is the wife of Tamaraeroa’s brother Huirapa. The format of this whakapapa is somewhat difficult to decipher but it appears to be of Kaai Tahu origin. Noted figures within its framework include Tamanuhiri, Whakaruru-a-nuku and Whaitiripoto who are known as Kati Kuri related figures mentioned in the Kingi Ruru (-Kurupohatu) waiata entitled ‘He waiata mo te kakari i mate ai a Kurawhaia’. Kurawhaia you may recall is the tipuna of Tutekawa and was one the chiefs ambushed by Kati Kuri when the so-called “Turanga people’ visited them. These ‘Turanga people’ were said by one of Beattie’s Maori informants to be from Kati Mamoe.
B: Te Aohikuraki’s first wife Pirauti is also known in Rangitane related traditions. However, as Jock McEwen’s ‘Rangitane’ text shows Pirauti is the child of Rakaiwhakairi of Ngati Iraturoto and Rongomaipare who stems from Kahukuraawitia (-Kahukuraawhitia). The only other Rongomaipare I am familiar with is one of the daughters of Tiotio given in marriage to Rakaitauheke. Pirauti’s parent might be ‘Rongomaipureora’ the child of Te Aomatarahi of Kati Iraturoto and as such suggested Te Aomatarahi might of coupled with one of Kahukuraawhitia’s daughters. But Kaai Tahu claim Te Aomatarahi and Houmea are the parents of this Rongomaipureora. I have yet to identify who this ‘Houmea’ is.
In ‘Rangitane’ (McEwen) Pirauti is coupled with Hakeke who are shown to be the parents of Rakaiwerohia which means Te Aohikuraki is not the father as stated in the Te Keepa text. James Coutts Crawford wrote that Ngati Kahukuraawhitia, a Ngati Kahungunu hapu and Ngati Hakeke occupied the Oruaite [sic] pa after its former Rangitane owners under Te Rerewa with Te Huataki, Rangitahatiti and Tukanae left the Miramar Peninsula for Aropaoa in the South Island.
Pirauti’s whakapapa also found in ‘Nga Pikituroa o Ngai Tahu’ shows her connection to the Ngai Tahu tipuna Tahumutu. It is by way of Tahumutu that Pirauti is also connected again to Kati Ira (-Iraturoto) since Tahumutu was the son of Irakehu. It is through Pirauti’s son Rakaiwerohia, the supposed son of Te Aohikuraki, that the famous Makawhiu (-Makawhiua) waka is brought down to the southern Wairarapa from the Waimarama district which is the coastal lands east of the Tukituki River and the Kaokao ranges by Rakaiwerohia’s son Te Rangitaawhanga and his uncle Tuputa another child from Pirauti. McEwen also mentions a Tuputa.
Overall the whakapapa records from Rangitane, Kati Iraturoto and Kaai Tahu sources for Pirauti are similar and appear to share a common tradition whilst all there tribes lived in and around the Wairarapa region.
C: Rakaitekura was the daughter of Te Maihuporo who was a descendant of Nukuroa the oldest twin of Tahumuri. These ‘mahaka’ are the great grandsons of Tahu-potiki. It is through Te Maihuporo’s
(-Tamaihuporo) grandfather Tamanuhiri that Rakaitekuri is also from Ngati Kahungunu since this Tamanuhiri is shown to be the son of Rakaihikuroa. Te Maihuporo was from Tamawhakatina (a Tamanuhiri) and Rakaihakua. The latter been the child of Kuri and Tutearitoka. The whakapapa for Tutearitoka has not been found. Tamaihuporo married two sisters called Mokara and Te Kuraiwaho who are the daughters of Whakataha and Rauiti. Rauiti is shown to stem from Te Ano and Rauriki. Whilst I have not yet identified the former, Rauriki is from Kiritea and Turaukawa a grandchild of Nukuroa of Kaai Tahu. Whakataha appears to be from Marukore and Tuhaitara as this name is sometimes rendered with a silent ‘h’ giving us ‘Whakaata’ instead. There is a ‘Whakataha’ amongst the Kati Mamoe ancestors of Te Rakitauneke who lived at Lake Ohau but this figure appears to have lived further back in time. From Te Kuraiwaho came Rakaitekura and a sibling called Ruatamatea:
[img] [/img]

This is a rather unique whakapapa in that Tamawhakatina is shown to be the son of Hinepari (~Hinepare) although the name of the father is not given. Apart from been the daughter of Tamanuhiri, Hinepare is sometimes shown to be coupled with Rakaimoari where both are the parents of Tauaweroha, a woman who married Tahumata which gave rise to the line of Tutaemaro which then conjoined with that of Hamua the son of Tuahuriri. Although she prefigures as the famous woman who rallies Taraia and his Ngati Kahungunu warriors to return to fight and finally defeat Rakaimoari, Hinepare and Rakaimoari may have been the inspiration for the internecine tradition between the families of Tuhaitara and Marukore.
Through Mokara, Tamaihuporo fathered Tuteuhuka who married Hineiwi the daughter of Hinehou and Haumia and had Hikatutae who therefore is a second cousin of Tuahuriri. Hinehou is also from Marukore and Tuhaitara. Teone Rawiri Te Mamaru put forward traditions from the Kaiapoi wharekura and continued later at Moeraki which featured in the Journal of the Polynesian Society (Vol:III) in 1894. This traces the lineage of Haumia who is from Raukawa and goes further back some twenty more generations to the mythical figure Tutumaiao. Although James Herries-Beattie was told that the Tutumaiao and Kui people became incorporated with the Kati Mamoe, they have been viewed as spirit like figures. For example, Tutumaiao is related in form to Tawhirimatea the god of the winds and therefore is a celestial entity. He is also known in the Aotea-Hauraki region and referred to as one of the many ‘pre-Adamite’ tribes who later became part of Toi’s descendants. The Tutumaiao like the Turehu, Maeroero and Kahui Tipua were in a sense like the Old Testament Nephilim, Rephaim and Anakim of their day. Te Mamaru further informs us that Wii and Waa who appear after the “Dark ages” of the po or great stages of the cosmological nights commences the ages of Mankind and hence strife and the ages of great chiefs. Since Te Mamaru places Tutumaiao two generations after Waa, just after Rakiroa who I think may be the same ancestor of Whatumamoe (-Hotumamoe), he is no doubt a semi-mythical figure who belonged to the collective memory of Kati Mamoe. Haumia though might also be the same ancestor found in Ngati Huataki/Rangitane traditions of Wairau.
It would appear that Rakaitekura is the strongest link to Kaai Tahu although her affiliations with Ngati Kahungunu also point to the senior line of Ngati Porou since Rakaihikuroa according to Kaai Tahu sources coupled with Uetakataka who stems from Porourangi. There is another ancestral figure called Rakaitekura who would of lived about the same time, i.e, the mid 17th.Century. Elsdon Best in his ‘Land of Tara’ (p.65) shows this Rakaitekura to stem from the Ngai Tara figure Te Aohaeretahi who in other accounts is the parent of the well-known Tuteremoana.This should bring our attention back to the Ngai Tara tipuna called "Tumaroro".
This Rakaitekura and Te Ikarearoa are shown in Rangitane records to be the parents of Tumapuhi(a)rangi the elder kinsman of Te Whatuiapiti. Tumapuhirangi is also the brother of Te Waipuha and Rokomaiwhaia the two wives of the Kati Kuri chief Maru. Te Ikaraeroa is the son of Rongomaipureora of Ngati Iraturoto and Hinengatira the great-granddaughter of Tunuiarangi who was the legendary old tohunga residing inside the Heipipi pa when Taraia and the Ngati Kahungunu lay siege. Jock McEwen also claims that the inhabitants of Heipipi at the time were various tribal branches of Whatumamoa and Ngati Awa (McEwen.1986.42). The Ngati Awanuiarangi or Tini-o-Awa were probably the Whatumamoa’s older kinship tribe also known as Te Kahea in the South Island.
We must be on the side of caution though because if my memory serves me well an unpublished note by James Herries-Beattie refers to three women by the name of Rakaitekura. Since this Rakitekura is the child of Tuwairau and Tahito this would rule out the possibility that she is the same mother of Tuahuriri because Kaai Tahu claim that Te Maihuporo and Kuraiwaho are the grandparents of Tuahuriri.
When we look towards the elusive Rangitane figure Te Huataki of Wairau (Marlborough region) we find that he is given two sisters in marriage called Mahakanui and Rakaitekura. The Kaai Tahu tohuka of Kaikoura Tapiha Te Wanikau tells us: " ...no reira ko te take tenei i whakamoea e Tiotio ona tamahine ki a Te Huataki, Mahakanui raua ko te teina ko Rakaitekura."
The Kati Kuri chief Tiotio gave his daughters to Te Huataki whilst the latter was by chance blown across the moana-a-Raukawa. Te Wanikau also tells us that Te Huataki was from Arapaoa (-Totaranui area or Queen Charolette Sound). Te Huataki was said to be the first Rangitane figure to settle in Te Tau Ihu o te waka, although his origins is not that certain as first glance. Other South Island traditions associate him with Kati Mamoe.Indeed, it is said that Te Huataki anxiously sought out his Kati Mamoe relations amongst the Kaai Tahu then residing at Hataitai. In one interesting version of this tradition gleamed from the so-called Waruwarutu Text we find the following: "...,na Ko Tiotio e moe ana i e tuahine a Te Huataki...". Now the wife of Tiotio is usually given as Turaumoa who is the daughter of Te Hutaii and Hine Kuhaa. I am not sure where Te Hutaai comes from, but Hine Kuhaa is the daughter of Marukore and Tuhaitara thus a sufficient tribal connection to Kati Mamoe. What is intriguing about the Waruwarutu tradition is that it gives some support to the idea that the Wairau region of Te Tau Ihu o te waka was settled by the "Aitanga-a-Riti", the people said to have come from Tahumataa the youngest son of Tuhaitara and Marukore. Aitanga or Aitaka -a-Riti refers to the Kati Mamoe ancestors of Tuhaitara and probably Marukore.I suspect Te Huataki was affiliated with not just Rangitane but also Kati Mamoe, thus the Aitaka-a-Riti initially settled with Te Huataki and the first Rangitane in Wairau before the former migrated further south to the Kaiapoi and Horomaka region. My current research appears to show, prima-facie,that these "Aitaka-a-Riti" were associated/affiliated with Tutekawa who lead the migration to Te Wahipounamu.
Another figure named Rakaitekura seems to have also lived at the same time and we know this because she/he was the child of Turauwha. Turauwha if you remember is the great grandson of Tuteihonga, the Kati Mamoe chieftainess who was formerly the 'wahine' of Porangahau who became the wife of Kahungunu's son Kahukuranui.Hence came the esteemed lines of Hinemanuhiri and Rakaipaka. Given the amount of generations between Tuteihonga and her gr.gr.grandchild Rakaitekura we can compare to those of Tutekawa's great-grandfather Te Kurawahia who would been a younger contemporary of Rakaipaka, thus Rakaitekura of Turauwha would place her as probably an older contemporary of Tutekawa probably born circa.1640 A.D. Next, is Rakaitekura who is a the sibling of Rakaitauheke the off-spring of Tanemoehau and Kuri. Nothing else is known about this person except that they lived approximately a generation before Tutekawa.
Turning to the wakapapa for the former Kaai Tahu upokoariki Tamaiharanui recorded by Edward Shortland we find that he to is descended from another figure called Rakaitekura who by my reckoning would of been a contemporary of Tuteakwa once again. This Rakaitekura comes down the Huatakataka (Uetakataka) line of Ngati Porou through her child Tamanuiuriuri who is usually accepted as been Tamanuhiri, the child of Uetakataka and Rakaihikuroa although the name 'Tamanuiuriuri'and the Huataktaka that goes back to Porourangi and Whatiua are also find in Ngati Kahungunu sources I believe that it originates amongst Kaai Tahu teachings in the South Island. We also now that this Rakaitekura was the same generation of Tuahuriri because his son Turakautahi married the daughter of Rakaitekura called Te Wharepapa thus bringing about the principle Kaai Tahu hapu of Rakiamoa.However, looking closely at the Tamaiharanui whakapapa written down by Shortland we see that the name "Rakitekura" included is the daughter of Rokomaiwhaea who is from Te Aokaihaere whose mother is Hinetewai. Other sources place this Rakitekura as the daughter of Te Waipuha the sister of Rokomaiwhaia who Maru of Kati Kuri both married. Ngati Hinewaka have a similar whakapapa framework where Rokomaiwhaia is rendered as "Rongomaiaia". What is interesting about the Ngati Hinewaka tradition is that they have a Rakaitekura coupled with a "Te Aohikurangi", which then confirms Kaai Tahu tradition that they are the parents of Tuahuriri but it also logically connects his mother Rakaitekura to Ngai Tara, Ngati Iraturoto and Ngati Kahungunu. A photographic copy of the relevant document is shown below:

[img] [/img]

Old manuscript of a whakapapa from Ngati Hinewaka showing “Te Aohikurangi” as the spouse of Rakaitekura.

This Ngati Hinewaka manuscript does not portray any of the recital conventions usually found in many Maori written texts of the middle to late 19th.Century. It was probably intended to be used as evidence in the Native Land Court because it has “XI Wairangi 23” written above it and it may have been cited as an over-all framework of cardinal ancestral figures which many of the claimants could refer back to. The format used in the text is obviously coded so I have taken the opportunity to represent part of it in table form.
I recommned any Ngati Hinewaka people reading this to offer advice and insights to this tradition under study as I have yet to do more research regarding this particular history :

[img] [/img]

From Hikamataki comes Hinewaka and from Hikawera proceeds Te Whatuiapiti. Hineteao may be the daughter of Te Aohikurangi. James Herries-Beattie was told that Rakinukai, the son of Tahumata and Mania, married two woman called Hineteao. One is the daughter of Kuri and Tutearitoka, but the other is referred to as “Hineteao a Tuahuriri” (MS-582/F/19.DHL.). I believe this last statement to actually infer Hineteao the daughter of Te Aohikuraki because I know of no child of that name to have been fathered by Tuahuriri. Thus, this Hineteao is probably the half sister of Tuahuriri.
The only noticeable difference is that Kaai Tahu make Tumaphuiarangi the brother of Maru’s two wives Waipuha and Rongomaiwhaia whilst Rangitane refer to a Waipua as the sibling of Tumapuhiarangi. From Te Angiangi came Kahutapere whose grandchild Te Rangituaiwa with Rongomaiaia had Hikamataki. The common link between the descendants of Tuwairau… is through Te Rangituaiwa whose mother Hineterangi is the offspring of Pirauti who coupled with Kahutapere’s son Wharekotore. Another child of Te Angiangi named Te Aohikatapu went on to marry Tuteahunga the great-grandson of Tuteremoana.
A comparison made of these same figures found in the collected Maori traditions by John White (1826-1891) show that Ikaraeroa is the father of Tumapuhiarangi, Angiangi, Waipua, Rongomaiwhaia and Hinetewa who is most likely to be Hinetewai which further supports the Kaai Tahu account that she is the daughter of Hinepare and Ikaraeroa. The genealogical text follows on from Tumapuhiarangi who is the father of Hinerewa, Rongomaiaia, Hikawera and Hikatoa. From this scheme we can see that there is a Rongomaiwhaia and a Rongomaiaia who is either a nephew or niece of the former.
Infact, the Tamaiharanui whakapapa published in Shortland’s ‘Southern Districts of New Zealand’ can be discreetly divided into a number of significant phyletic sections which inpart reflect those names found in Ngati Hinewaka and related Wairarapa traditions:

[img] [/img]
Starting from Paikea down five generations to Rakaiotane
(-Rakaiatane) is a Ngati Porou group but one which I consider to derive from Kaai Tahu sources rather than Turanganui tradition because the name Porouraki is proceeded by Whatiua (-Whatiuateramarama) who in Kaai Tahu practice is the tuakana of Tahu-potiki whilst Porouraki is his nephew and not a sibling. The next section is rather complex and it forms a series of cross-references to various traditions. It begins with Huataktaka (-Uetakataka or Uetangatanga) who comes after Rakaiotane and is usually coupled with the Ngati Kahungunu figure Rakaihikuroa with Tamanuhiri or Tamanuiuriuri as their child. Hinepare is the famous daughter of Tamanuhiri who prefigures with Taraia and Ngati Kahungunu in the battle against Rakaimoari. A lot of whakapapa renderings from the Ngati Kahungunu ki te Wairarapa area instead make “Uetakatahu” as the spouse of Rakaihikuroa’s progeny Tamanuhiri and from that aforementioned union comes Rongomaiaia. Papaumu instead of Uetakataka is put forward as the mother of Tamanuhiri. The Uetakatahu of Wairarapa tradition is shown as the child of Rakaimoehau and Tawakehaparapara. Rakaimoehau is from Ngati Iraturoto and her/his grandson Whakaihirangi married Moeteao the grand-daughter Tuteremoana of Ngai Tara. There are two figures with the name Rongomaiaia within the same whakapapa fold. For example, in the Wairarapa Minute Book 14 (p.148) of the Native Land Court you will find Utakataha is a sibling of Rongomaiaia although the former is coupled with Tamanuhiri and has a child also called Rongomaiaia. Now this is reflected within the ‘Tamaiharanui’ whakapapa where “Rokomaiwhaea” is also spelt ‘Rokomaiwhaia’, is shown as the parent of Rakaitekura (II) who I have already discussed. It now becomes more obvious that the names between Tamanuiuriuri (-Tamanuhiri) and Rokomaiwhaea are the same group of ancestors found within Ngai Tara/Ngati Kahungunu traditions although in another order. The Rakaitekura shown above as the mother of Te (Ao) Wharepapa is not always cited as the daughter of Rongomaiwhaia because one other rendering has her sister Waipuha with Maru as the parents of this Rakaitekura. All the same the sororate connection of Waipuha and Rokomaiwhaia testifies to a common but close genealogical bond between the offspring of Ikarearoa and Rakaitekura and the descendants of Tamanuhiri and Uetakataka. It was also said that Maru’s daughter Rakaitekura was expected to marry Te Rakiwhakaputa’s son Te Rakitauhuka, but instead with her father’s approval married a man called Tuakeka, said to be the son of Tuteuhuka (vide-Rev.J.Stack, TPRSNZ:Vol.10.1877). These events would of happened just before the Kaai Tuhaitara crossed the Moana-a-Raukawa and joined their Kati Kuri kin and therefore before Tutekawa was killed at Waikakahi. We also know that Te Rakiwhakaputa was a first cousin of Tutekawa and Tukiauau because all their respective mothers were sisters. Therefore, this offers us an approximate genealogical gauge which indicates that Tutekawa, Tukiauau, Te Rakiwhakaputa and Maru were probably from the same generation as Te Aokahaere shown above. This also implies that Tuahuriri’s mother Rakaitekura was a contemporary of Hinetawai and Te Aokahaere and that her grandson Turakautahi was most likely twice the age of his bride Te (Ao)Wharepapa which was sometimes the usual custom.
The fact that Huatakitaki and Tamanuhiri are linked to the name Rongomaiaia (-Rongomaiwhaia) within both Ngati Kahungunu/Ngati Porou and Ngai Tara genealogical stables strongly suggests that the ‘Tamaiharanui’ whakapapa carries significant Wairarapa atavistic elements. Although this still leaves us to explain how exactly Rongomaiwhaia of Rakaitekura (I) and Ikaraeroa relates to the two Rongomai(wh)aia figures of Rakaimoehau and Tawakehaparapara. It further portrays that the initial Ngati Porou section used in Kaai Tahu traditions may be somewhat in complete and that the mention of “Te Tauwirioteraki” and other orthographic renderings of that name been the child of Porourangi is perhaps the gr.gr.grandchild “Te Kauwirioterangi” who descends from Rongomaianiwaniwa. The hypothetical inclusion of three more generations would correlate more exactly with East-Coast traditions and related traditions on all points.
And in another related whakapapa these sisters are placed with their brother Tumaphia (-Tumapuhiarangi) with another sister called Hinetewai whose offspring is given as "Te Aokahaere". These names including Rokomaiwhaia are shown in italics above. This family is from Te Ikaraeroa and Rakaitekura (I), the latter is the aforementioned daughter of Tahito of Ngati Kahungunu and Tuwairau of Ngai Tara. Both Ikaraeroa and Pirauiti were first cousins who were the grandchildren of the Ngati Iraturoto chief Te Aomatarahi. A similar rendering of the ‘Tamaiharanui’ whakapapa from a Wairarapa source shows Hinepare, the daughter of Tamanuiuruuri, to be coupled with Ikaraeroa although in a Kaai Tahu rendering she is also coupled with Rakaimoari:
[img] [/img]
There appears to be a grandmother and a grand-daughter of the same name and that the younger Rakaitekura (II) was a first cousin to Te Aokahaere and not a daughter. Is Shortland's account misconstrued or is it a simply a matter that each is just a variation of an over-all stable that points back to Ngai Tara, Ngati Iraturoto and Ngati Porou?
Uetakataka’s (-Huetangatanga) connection to Ngati Porou is not as clear as suggested in Kaai Tahu traditions because there appears to be no ‘direct’ connection to Porourangi when we compare her whakapapa to Ngati Porou sources we are not sure which particular line she comes down from. This dilemma is brought about by Kaai Tahu claiming that Uetakataka was from Taw(h)irioteraki who is placed immediately after the name of Porourangi. Ngati Porou do not have a Tawirioteraki as the offspring of Porourangi.
Ngai Tahu kaumatua such as Thomas Eustice Waitangi Green may have attempted to reflect various East-Coast genealogies. Walter Gudgeon for example collected a whakapapa from the “Whangara tribe”, Ngati Porou, which is also published in David Simmon’s ‘Great New Zealand myth’ (p.259) which has some names that correspond with the Green texts that attempt to trace Tutekawa’s maternal descent from Porourangi. This genealogy also shows a close affiliation with Tutekohe and Rongomaiwaiata the children of Hinetera the daughter of Tamateakuku and Hauiti. Hauiti was from Iranui, a child of Tamatea-pokaiwhenua, and Hingangaroa a descendant of Porourangi.
What we do find on closer inspection is that Taw(h)irioterangi is the off-spring of Rongomaiwaiata and that Rakaitane is the grandchild of Tawirioterangi. Rakaitane is also mentioned in the Rakitekura whakapapa that points back to Porourangi in the Rakaitekura whakapapa. The same outline is given also in Tutekawa’s maternal line of descent from Hinetauhara who also shared Kati Mamoe heritage. Infact, both the Rakaitekura and Hinetauhara links to Porourangi are the same except the former branches off from Rakaitane where the off-spring Uetakataka is the line that leads down to Rakaitekura and Uetakataka’s sibling Rakaiatoro is the line that leads down to Hinetauhara the mother of Tutekawa. Now the striking difference is that when you compare both parallel descent lines they do not match by the account of generations. For example, from Uetakataka to Rakaitekura there is five generations whereas from Uetakataka’s sibling Rakaiatoro there is only three generations to Tutekawa. Thus, Tutekawa would appear to be two generations older than Tuahuriri’s mother Rakaitekura and this so is clearly a contradiction since Kaai Tahu lore dictates that Tutekawa and Tuahuriri were contemporaries. Further, Tuahuriri’s wife Hinetawai is the sister of Tukorero, the wife of Tutekawa thus respectively making Moki and Te Rakitamau first cousins.
It is my studied opinion that the salient differences between the descent lines of Rakaitekura and Tutekawa are mainly due to missing generations. Kaai Tahu sources simply do not specialize in either Ngati Porou or Ngati Kahungunu whakapapa. Their main genealogical hold for both these tribes is based on a limited but stable store. Just as Kaai Tahu traditions always place Rakaihikuroa with Uetakataka within their Ngati Kahungunu stable so the same rendition for descent from Porourangi through the line of Te Tauwirioteraki is used for the most part as the main-frame to hold the various ancestral names that point back to that ancestor although they may not exactly correlate with other sources.
Uetakataka (–Huetangtanga) or Uetakatahu is particularly problematic as my research has shown her to be either the spouse of Rakaihikuroa or his son Tamanuhiri. Her lineage in Kaai Tahu sources of course point back to Porourangi but some whakapapa given as evidence in the Native Land Court from Ngati Kahungunu sources in the 19th.Century show her to be from Tawakehaparapara, Wakenui and back to Whata (-Tarawhata). But it is still not that simple considering that South Island traditions also have a Tawakehaparapara who is preceeded by a Tawakenui. This last figure I believe is the same figure known by East-Coast authorities as ‘Wakenui’. Taare Te Maiharoa called these ‘Tawake-‘ ancestor a mix of Waitaha and Kati Mamoe. Looking at the full genealogical rendering they certainly show that the Tawake figures become part of early Kati Mamoe lines before they left the North Island.
From this we have five figures called Rakiatekura who lived within a generation or two of each-other:
1.Rakaitekura of Tamaihuporo.
2.Rakaitekura of Tuwairau and Tahito.
3.Rakaitekura of Turauwha.
4.Rakaitekura of Te (Ao)Wharepapa.
5.Rakaitekura of Tiotio and Turaumoa.
I consider Rakaitekura the daughter of Te Wharepapa to have lived later than the mother of Tuahuriri so not applicable within the tradition under consideration although she is related to Rakaitekura of Tuwairau and Tahito.The genealogical inventory of 1 and 2 , i.e, from Kaai Tahu and Kati Iraturoto and Rangitane share a collection of the same names which I suspect are related.Rakaitekura of Turauwha has so far proven to have no obvious connection to Kaai Tahu but is still of some interest.Rakaitekura of Tiotio and Turaumoa is interesting in that she lived at the same time as Tuahuriri's mother in Hataitai, which is where he lived, but this Rakitekura might simply be one of three of that name who lived during the same period.
Now, returning to the identity of Tuahuriri’s father I will repeat what I have already put forward here. Tumaro was the former husband of Rakaitekura. He is said to be a Ngai Tara figure, the older kinship tribe of Rangitane, although there is an indication that he was also shared Ngati Kahungunu ancestry. It appears that he already established a settlement or connections in the Waimea (Nelson) region of Te Tau Ihu o te Waka before Tuahuriri was born in Whanganui-a-Tara. Kaai Tahu tradition tells us that Tuahuriri and his oldest son Hamua drowned while crossing the moana-a-Raukawa. We also know that when he was called Te Hikutatwatawaoteraki he went on a quest to find his father and so came to Whakamarama at Waimea where his identity was revealed and subsequently was ‘blessed’ by Tumaro’s father Kahukuratepaku. This implies that Te Hikutawatawa (-Tuahuriri) was recognized as the true son of Tumaro. However, the so-called “prosaic subtleties” at work in this tradition do not state that Tumaro is the real father as such but it is by way of close conjecture that he is indeed a relative of Te Hikutawatawa. Such an idea is also bored out by a remark collected by James Herries-Beattie which refers to Te Aohikuraki and Tumaro as cousins. The kinship term may not be exactly close as preferred by Pakeha, but part of the Tumaro/Tuahuriri story perhaps reflects the connotation that Te Hikutawatawa was infact seeking out and attempting to establish kinship ties to the tangata-whenua living in the far northern areas of Te Wahipounamu. Thus, Tumaro and Kahukuratepaku may represent ‘paternal’ like relatives of Te Hikutawatawaoteraki.
We are also told that Tuahuriri visited the Whakamarama, Waimea settlement a second time to attack and which he and his warriors killed many of the inhabitants or in one version he returns with a host of warriors who eat the Whakamarama hosts out of ‘house and home’. At some stage though Te Hikutawatawaoteraki becomes Tuahuriri and he is also lost at sea with his son Hamua and somewhere in between we are to believe he crosses paths with Tutekawa whilst still living in Whanganui-a-Tara. His disappearance whilst attempting to cross the Moana-a-Raukawa may have given rise to various legends about him.
The significance of places Tumaro as the real father may lie with the concept of mana-whenua. As I have already noted earlier Hone Tikao wrote to the New Zealand Colonial Governor in 1850 regarding the Wairau purchase in 1847 that: ”Tuahiriri was the man who had authority over all these lands, because he was the great chief of Ngati Wairangi. Kahukuratupaku first owned that land, and from him descended Tumaroro, and from Tumaroro came Te Tuahuriri, thus he was chief of all these lands.”
So once again the exact relationship between Tuahuriri and Kati Wairaki is uncertain excepting to say that this iwi initially resided it is believed in Te Tau Ihu o te waka before moving down the West-Coast. Ngai Tara were known to have contacts with the early Kaai Tahu around Totaranui (Queen Charlotte Sounds) in the second half of the 17th.Century and like their former Rangitane and Kati Mamoe contacts Ngai Tara would have been important associates for Kaai Tahu still based in and around Te Whanganuia-a-Tara in the way of lithic resources and eventually establishing settlements within Te Tau Ihu.
Now, we must also remember Matiaha Tiramorehu’s notes on history taken down by Walter Mantell in 1848 which in part reads:” …hei iwi hoki a kaituhaitara, ko Tuahuriri ano te Rangitane , ko Katiwhata te iwi ko Tuahuriri te rangatira…”.
Tiramorehu claims not only places Tuahuriri as been the principle man of the Kaai Tuahitara, thus tacitly placing him in the descent line of Te Aohikuraki, but he is also the rangatira of both the Rangitane and Kati Whata. There is no mention of Kati Wairaki or Tumaro (-Tumaroro) although Rangitane would of been a phyletic term by the mid 19th.Century that included Ngai Tara.The only obvious Kati Whata claim probably comes through Moki’s two wives. It would appear that both Tikao and Tiramorehu were more concerned to formally establish Kaai Tahu mana-whenua with the Crown and its handling and recognition of the rightful owners of the land which had been occupied and sold by invading tribes who came from Taranaki in the 1820’s.
The over-all tribal tradition concerning the identity of Tuahuriri serves to show the vacillations of Kaai Tahu’s allegiances and political concerns over the ages. The image of Tuahuriri is sometimes a composite one; infact we get the impression that there is another layer under the atavistic persona. After-all he has two names and potentially two fathers. His dealings with Tutekawa are sometimes ambiguous just like his youngest son Moki with Te Rakitamau. Each generation are new dramatis personae composed of enemies but each time indebted to the other by the deeds of their fathers.
All the same evidence has shown us that the relevant whakapapa makes Te Aohikuraki to be the father of Tuahuriri. On the other hand there simply is no whakapapa that places Tumaro as the father. Tumaro is relevant though to Kaai Tahu tradition because it is he who is supposed to be the first husband of Rakaitekura living in Te Whanganuia-a-Tara and thus he was also important tribal figure at one stage because of his Ngai Tara affiliations which in time would have been somewhat crucial for Kaai Tahu establishing a beach-head in Te Wahi-pounamu. Te Aohikuraki was from the senior line of Kaai Tahu, but his father Tamaraeroa was the oldest son of Tuhaitara and Marukore but before that the Kaai Tahu line goes only back through his mother Tuhaitara who was the daughter of the Kati Mamoe/Kati Iraturoto woman Manuwatakitu who married Rakaiwhakaata of Kaai Tahu.Essentially Tuahuriri's paternal line goes back to Tamarearoa's father Marukore, a Te Kahea-Kati Mamoe figure.Over-all the children of Tuhaitara and Marukore were, inter-alia,more Kati Mamoe by descent.
It is perhaps by a matter of political and historical chance that Tumaro has helped to prop up the image of a child that is not his own since the supposed biological father Te Aohikuraki is barely mentioned in any substantial form throughout the tradition.

Edited by - Upokoruru on Jan 10 2008 1:33:21 PM

Edited by - Upokoruru on Jan 13 2008 6:20:02 PM

Posted : 23 December, 2007 10:27 pm
Upokoruru OWC
Active Member

It is interesting now that Christ-mas is upon us that the paternal origins of Tuahiriri/Te Hikutawatawaoteraki remind me of that eternal question;who is the father of Jesus?
Now, I am not here to debate the psilanthropic or fully divine any other nature of our Lord found in between the two or any other form of Christology.
luke3:23-37 and Matthew1:1-17 both tell us that Joseph is of the House of David and that his father is Jacob, but I have read if I am right, for want of my KJV is alas no at hand, that it is Heli.And we know taht both Mary and Joseph were obliged to return to their places of origins so we find Joseph in Bethlemhem, the house of bread, and soon afterwards Mary gives birth to the child Jesus.
Bethlehem as we know is the traditional city of King David as he was born and grew up there as a shepard before he became king of Judea and Israel and established his capital at Jerusalem.
From the line of David it was believed also that the Maskiakh or Messiah would come. Likewise we find the Canaanite woman addressing Jesus as the "Son of David"in Matthew:15:21 but not in Mark:7:24.
Now other accounts claim Heli is the father of Mary and if I remember Luke has "...(as supposed)the son Joseph ,the son of Heli." and from this a many Bibilical student has probably proposed that Heli is both the father of Mary and Joseph thus implying that they are half-siblings or cousins even.
It is all the same interesting that those who lean towards the idea that Jesus is the Son of God somewhat dismiss the whakapapa link of joseph and Jesus been his son.Infact, they tend to trick themselves and others that it is really the genealogy of Mary at hand and not Joseph.
As it has already been suggested, any early evangelist or scribe in favour of a Divine nature of Jesus would of simply reconfigured the whakapapa of Joseph to lead straight down to Mary.But they don't!
Now we know Luke was the Greek apostle and Helenistic thinking tends to see things in the form of hypostasis and other divine natures.Luke's 'parathetical remark' may not be just his hesitation about placing Jesus as the son of Joseph, but Luke may simply been ignorant of traditional Jewish 'prosaic subtleties'and its connotation of placing Jesus in alignment with the Davidic royal House.After all Numbers 1:18 sets the prerequiste that the paternal house or line is to be accounted for.
On the otherhand, regarding Mary's supposed lineage we read the following synopsis from Rabbi Tovia Singer:
"Nowhere in the third Gospel, or in the entire New Testament for that matter, does it state that Mary was from the House of David. On the contrary, Luke 1:27 insists that it is Joseph who was from the House of David, not Mary. In fact, Luke claims that Mary was the cousin of Elizabeth, who he says was a descendant of Aaron the high priest [Luke 1:5], placing her in the tribe of Levi, not David’s tribe of Judah. Moreover, in Luke 2:4, the author writes that the reason it was necessary for Joseph and Mary to return to Bethlehem was because Joseph was from the House of David"

It seems to me that the early Church patricians or scribes were dealing with a Jewish Messianic element that naturally identified with paternal tribal customs.Sooner or later though the more Universal genitile-Helenistic understanding of the Christ became to dominate the course of exegesis and communication of the nature of Jesus to the Community which reminds me of Galatians 3:28.
What is rather curious also is that Joseph takes Mary to Bethlehem, back to his 'home town' so to say as ordered by the conducting of the census, you would expect that he would have relatives still there and yet we find him looking for a room to stay and Mary to give birth. What?Was Joseph too ashamed to come knocking at his relative's door with an unmarried woman heavily gravitated???
However, we do not know if she is indeed unmarried because Matthew I think implies that they are simply betrothed.
Although we don't hear of a "Jesus of Bethlehem", but only a "Jesus of Nazareth", his Davidic descent may be one due to a simple symbolic locator that is the "supposed" father is Davidic by default (....."Davidic by default";this is going to be the new modernist catch phrase at next years at cocktail parties...), and this designator may of appeased early Jewish followers of Christ who wanted to view him in a messianic royal light but that the real Davidic 'blood' came through Mary and not Joseph.Perhaps Joseph was exactly that ,'a carpenter and nothing else.Perhaps Mary was from a more formal and respectable House but like her cousin Elizabeth had married a commoner from the wrong House and took refuge with a group those 'Sons of light' Essene fringe-dealers and stopped shaving her legs and eating meat.
To the Helenists this would look like Mary or the maternal aspect was more important than the paternal leaving open the idea that Jesus's lineage transcended mere mundane Jewish concerns and thus would have more universal appeal.

Edited by - Upokoruru on Dec 27 2007 11:40:13 AM

Posted : 23 December, 2007 11:00 pm
Eminent Member

Kia ora Upokoruru..as always youve provided more thought provoking material here...will take me a while to digest all to the point of understanding, but have thoroughly enjoyed the process & journey, much thanks -Joy

Posted : 10 January, 2008 8:28 pm
pepe OWC
Active Member

Whata was the Ngati Kahungunu maternal uncle of Tutekawa 1 who was buried in Turanganui[gisborne]. He emigrated to Taranaki and became an ancestor to The Ngati Ruanui.
Judge Mckay states that the Ngati Kuri who took over Kaikoura were a branch of Ngati Ruanui. This is not commonly known information.

Posted : 01 April, 2008 12:38 am